The African buffalo is only distantly related to other larger bovines. Its unpredictable temperament may have been part of the reason that the African buffalo has never been domesticated, unlike its Asian counterpart, the water buffalo. Natural predators of adult African buffaloes include lions, hyenas, and crocodiles. Herd size is highly variable. The core of the herds is made up of related females and their offspring. The basic herds are surrounded by subherds of subordinate males, high-ranking males and females, and old or invalid animals.